Monday, August 24, 2020

Arpanet :: essays research papers

The USSR dispatches Sputnik, the primary fake earth satellite. In the late 1960's the U.S. military was frantically scared of an atomic assault from the Soviet Union. The US shaped the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) inside the Department of Defense to build up a bombproof system to associate army installations. ARPANET's physical arrange was set up in 1969 to empower colleges and research associations to trade data unreservedly. The initial two hubs that framed the ARPANET were UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute, soon after the University of Utah was added to ARPANET. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) was at first utilized as the ARPANET convention, starting in 1970. By 1971, an aggregate of 23 hosts at 15 areas were associated with the ARPANET. The following year, the primary worldwide associations happened, connecting the University School of London (UK) and the Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) to the ARPANET. The way ARPANET was set up is so that in the event that one of the system joins got disturbed by adversary assault, the traffic on it could naturally be rerouted to different connections. Luckily, the Net once in a while has gone under adversary assault. During the 1970s, ARPA too supported further examination into the uses of parcel exchanging innovations. This included stretching out bundle changing to ships adrift and ground versatile units and the utilization of radio for bundle exchanging. Ethernet was made over the span of investigation into the utilization of radio for bundle exchanging, and it was discovered that coaxial link could bolster the development of information at incredibly quick paces. The advancement of Ethernet was urgent to the development of neighborhood systems. The accomplishment of ARPANET made it hard to oversee, especially with the huge and developing number of college destinations on it. So it was broken into two sections. The two sections comprised of MILNET, which had the military destinations, and the new, littler ARPANET, which had the nonmilitary destinations. On January 1,1983, each machine associated with ARPANET needed to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP turned into the center Internet convention and supplanted NCP (old ARPANET language) totally. Because of TCP/IP MILNET and ARPANET stayed associated through a specialized plan called IP (Internet Protocol); which empowers traffic to be directed from one system to another as vital. All the systems associated with the Internet speak IP, so they all can trade messages. Despite the fact that there were just two systems around then, IP was intended to take into account countless systems. A bizarre reality about the IP configuration is that each PC on an IP arrange is similarly as skilled as some other, so any

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Causes of Suicide Among College Students Free Essays

Self destruction implies an individual purposefully to embrace different intends to take his life. It has been the subsequent driving reason for death among understudies (Caruso, n. d. We will compose a custom article test on Reasons for Suicide Among College Students or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now ). The issue is quitting any and all funny business in creating nation, for example, Hong Kong and the approaches to self destruction had changed to a mass self destruction endeavor on December 21, 2009 (Mak, 2011). These rising issues are disclosing to us that self destruction had getting one of the most vital issue that should be resolve before it influence our future head. Along these lines, we will audit dependent on the past research for the liquor and family relationship factors that add to self destruction among understudies. One of the variables that add to self destruction among undergrad is liquor devouring. A few past looks into have been found to help this factor. An early investigation by Lamis, Ellis, Chumney and Dula (2009) guaranteed that numerous understudies are encountering substantial liquor utilization and liquor use are connected with self-destructive conduct. This investigation is to check various degrees of hazard for liquor related issues and their connection to purposes behind living among understudies (Lamis et al. , 2009). 287 members were enrolled and separated into three liquor gatherings, that are generally safe, moderate-hazard and high-chance gathering (Lamis et al. , 2009). The speculation was made that members in the high-chance gathering will report least purposes behind living (Lamis et al. , 2009). RFL self-report measure was utilized to check how significant an explanation would be for living on members. Other than that, AUDIT test likewise used to distinguish people whose encountering liquor related issues (Lamis et al. , 2009). As the outcome, the high-chance gathering had less good issues with kicking the bucket by self destruction contrasted with the generally safe gathering (Lamis et al. , 2009). From the trial, we can see that over the top liquor use may bring down understudy moral issues with self destruction (Lamis et al. , 2009). Another trial directed by Lamis, Malone, Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Ellis (2009) expressed that liquor devouring will build the hazard for taking part in self-destructive practices. This factor is fortify when Powell and associates (2001), as refered to in Lamis et al. 2009) discovered that high liquor drinking amount will makes a more prominent probability of a genuine self destruction endeavor. 318 members were enlisted and scarcely any estimating scale was utilized to foresee the outcome for this analysis. The outcome tells that downturn is indicator of liquor use in youthful grown-ups. Other than that, liquor use are adversely corresponded with body insurance and the outcomes recommends that people who are conceivably include in high-chance practices, for example, self destruction are typically from the person who tend to ensure themselves (Lamis et al. , 2010). Reference suicide.html Instructions to refer to Causes of Suicide Among College Students, Essay models

Friday, July 17, 2020

Data Analyst Resume Examples, Template Resume Tips

Data Analyst Resume Examples, Template Resume Tips With so much data being generated every second, its no wonder data analysts, people who can drive manipulate data so that they can get relevant conclusions out of it, are being wanted more and more on the job market.Social media, our phones and the internet, in general, are all creating millions of files of data every minute. Have you heard the saying Google knows you better than your own mother?Well, actually, its true.Google knows more about you your interests, where exactly do you spend your time, what you look at, what you like and what you dont like. How does Google know all of this? Based on data hes collected from you.Since in this day and age, peoples behavior can be explained through numbers and data files, marketing agencies are all about using this information to sell their product or service.Data analysts are not only useful for marketing, but they can also be useful for internal processes. Based on internal information about how employees behave in a certain company, a data analyst can come to conclusions about what their next step inside (or outside) of the company will be.So, we can see why data analysts are so valuable to companies and why would they want to hire them.Lucky for you, there arent a lot of good data analysts on the market yet, so if you become good at this you can really make a name of yourself fast!Whether you have experience working in this field or whether you are looking for your first opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge, this guide will help you write the perfect resume!We will cover how to create it in the right way, but we will also show some examples of doing it the wrong way, so you get a better idea of what is good and what isnt.Dont forget that if you want to create a perfect resume in less time, you can always use our resume builder.Lets dive into it!Senior Data Analyst Resume Example Right Data Analyst Resume Sample Right Create your own resumeGUIDE ON WRITING THE PERSONAL INFO SECTIONSince your resume is sort of like your identification card for a recruiter, its logical that the first part of it is the section about you. In the personal info section, you give all the relevant information about yourself.What do we mean by relevant information? Well, what we mean by that is that you should only give the info you think is necessary.For example, you dont have to give your Instagram or Facebook profiles, while you should always give your LinkedIn profile, since that is a professional social media, while Facebook and Instagram are private.Also, you shouldnt give a number or an e-mail you dont use regularly.The good news about this section is that you really cant go wrong while filling it out.Still, there are some mini mistakes which can happen, so we will cover them as well.Remember, if you want to create your resume without the hassle of creating a template or searching for one online, you can always use our resume templates.Full NameNo matter how obvious it might be for you what should be written here, some people dont find it that obvious that when writing your name, you shouldnt put puns or nicknames in it.Your resume should be professional with maybe a little fine humor, but never state your name in any other way than how it is in your ID and passport.Tom Pinkham RightTom Pinkham (yes, my last name does sound like food) WrongProfessionThe more specific your profession is, the better. It helps the recruiter know what youre good at immediately. So, our advice is that if you have something to put before data analyst, put it.Maybe youre a senior or a marketing data analyst. If you want to just stick with data analyst, that is fine too. Dont think about this part too much.PhotoFind a high-quality picture of yourself smiling and looking at the camera, preferably with a one-colored background.It helps the recruiter to connect your name with a picture.A resume without a picture is no t a complete resume, dont rely that they will go on your social media profile and look at your pictures there.Phone NumberIn this field, all you need to do is to write down the number of the phone where the recruiter can reach you.This is crucial. If the recruiter calls you for an interview and you dont pick up the phone or return their call, you will leave a very bad impression, which might cost you a job.Keep in mind that some people prefer talking on the phone instead of e-mailing you because this way is much faster and personal.AddressIn this part, you simply put down the current address youre living at. Dont put the address where you grew up but moved out from 2 months ago.For some positions and recruiters, your living location is very important because they might have to relocate you or provide you help with transportation by paying for public transport or possibly giving you a company car.E-Mail AddressYou will probably get further information about the selection process by e -mail.So, make sure to write your e-mail on your resume.Write the one you check daily or the one which youre going to start checking daily.But really, like not answering the phone, not answering to an e-mail (or even answering it after 24 hours) will leave a really bad taste. Make sure your e-mail sounds professional, dont put the ones which WrongSocial Media ProfilesAlways link your social media profiles which youre comfortable sharing with people you dont know.We always advise people to put their LinkedIn profiles in their resume, because its a more detailed report on everything you did in the past work experience, education, projects, volunteering, etc.At this day and age, having a LinkedIn profile is absolutely mandatory.As for sharing other social media, its entirely up to you, since they are private.Keep in mind that the recruiter might look you up online and see what youve been doing, so just because you didnt link your profiles, it doesnt mean that they cant get it another way.GUIDE ON WRITING THE SUMMARY SECTIONIn the summary section, youre supposed to give a brief overview of your experience, your area of expertise, or your future ambitions if you dont have any experience in the field yet, and you are looking for your first opportunity. Lets look at a good summary and a bad summary and compare the two:SummaryA senior data analyst with over 10 years of experience in manipulating and interpreting data and successfully coming to solutions for over 30 businesses. Excellent knowledge in analytics, mathematics and statistics gives me the foundation for my work. In order to analyze data in the most effective ways, I use the best analytics tools and always try to have a great understanding of business operations. RightSummaryIve worked as a data analyst for over 10 years. I am very good at it, and I can help you grow your business. Im currently looking for new opportunities, so feel free to reach out! WrongIf we look at the Right example first, we notice that its much more specific. It tells the recruiter how long youve been working, what exactly you did and how you did it.On the other hand, the Wrong example is much less detailed and seems more like a sales message than a summary of your professional life.GUIDE ON WRITING THE EXPERIENCE SECTIONSince as a data analyst, you handle a lot of numbers, its best to use the experience section in quantitative information as well. So, whatever you can, quantify or put the exact metric.As for the responsibilities you had but cant quantify, just try to explain them as best you can. Right WrongNotice how the Wrong example has so few details about it and is not specific at all.All youre giving the recruiter is the time you spend in the company and which company it is. If he or she invites you the interview (which is very unlikely given the fact of how badly written your resume is), you will have to spend a lot of time explaining your previous work.At the Right example, we see much more details about your role, responsibilities and accomplishments. If you want help with creating your resume, feel free to check out our new online resume builder.Its very easy to use and will save you time as well!GUIDE ON WRITING THE EDUCATION SECTIONFormal education is very important for some companies and especially if you are applying to work for them as a data analyst. Only write down the last degree you have (high school and elementary school dont really give any information to the recruiter). Right WrongMake sure you put a couple of bullet points which give more detail about your time during studies, or additional courses and certificates.For this position, usually people are looking for someone who has very good theoretical knowledge in mathematics in statistics, so if your GPA is good, make sure you write it down here.If its not high and you dont put it, just be prepared to talk about it during the interview. Prepare a reason why your GPA is not high. For example, you could say that you found learning online better or that you focused more on working than studying.GUIDE ON WRITING THE SKILLS SECTIONWe always recommend the following sub-sections of the skills section: your profession skills, other skills and languages. In the first part, you put the skills which are relevant for someone who is a data analyst.This is definitely the most important sub-section, so put the most effort into it.Other skills are soft skills which are nice to have but not key for someone who is a da ta analyst. The languages sub-section is self-explanatory.Just make sure that you write on which level of knowledge you are with each language.Lets take a comparative look at the right and wrong example of the skills section: Right WrongNot only is the Wrong example poorly organized, but it also shows that you didnt put the effort in this part of the resume.As a recruiter, what would you think? If a candidate is not willing to put in the time and the effort to write a good resume, why would he or she be willing to put the time and the effort in the job that you give them?TIPS TRICKSFor the last part of this guide, weve prepared for you some final tips tricks.After reading this, you will definitely be more prepared than 90% of candidates to write a great resume!Some of these tips might seem like common sense to you, while for some, they might be revolutionary.Lets take a look:Include these main data analyst skills Regression, decision trees, knowledge in statistics and mathematics, IBM SPSS, Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint and Word, Tableau, Pivot tables, SQL (only put the ones which you have, dont write that you know something to do unless you really know how to do it)Include these main action verbs for a data analyst Analyze, consolidate, develop, install, interpret, generate, monitor, operate, perform, report, research, track and utilizeKeep the lists in a couple of bullet points Dont go overboard with explaining how you did something or explaining a process in full detail. Save the details for the interview and put your key duties and results in the resumeName your key accomplishments Every company is very interested in what results can you get them. To explain that its best to use examples from your previous work. For example, if your work contributed to a 15% cost reduction, write that in your resume, its an impressive achievement!Dont send your resume as a Word file format This is the worst format for a resume, but a lot of people do it anyways. Writing your resume in Word will only demonstrate that you lacked the effort to write it. To avoid this, use our online resume builder. Find a template which you like and fill out the information accordingly. This kind of resume will su rely leave a good impression!CONCLUSIONWe hope that by reading this guide, weve proven that writing a resume doesnt have to be a drag and a hard process. We hope that we proved that creating your resume can be an enjoyable creative process once you know what youre doing.Our online resume builder templates surely know what theyre doing, so if you want to create a resume for yourself fast and easy, make sure you check it out! Create your own resume

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Impact Of Technology In Fashion - 921 Words

Technological advancement in regards to Fashion As technology continues to progress fashion evolves right alongside. Before the invention of the tv the way to spread different styles and outfits was through sketches and designs. By this means it would take extended amounts of time to spread ideas of fashion from one place to another. The influence of technology on the fashion industry cannot be overlooked. Fashion is being rapidly offered to consumers at an amazingly fast rate. Nowadays anybody can have anything they want within the reach of a button on a phone or computer screen, fashion is instantaneous. It used to be following style patterns included venturing to the far corners of the planet in a group of 10 to create a†¦show more content†¦Since social media is so easily accessible to everyone nowadays people dont care to go and grab the latest vogue for inspiration, they will go on their phones and check their instagram, twitter, Facebook or any social media account to see whats trending. In L2s Advanced IQ List, wh ich positions form brands as per their site offerings, online business, computerized advertising and web-based social networking mindfulness, US ladies dress planner Tory Burch beats understood worldwide extravagance brands, for example, Gucci, Hermes and Chanel. This shows the huge impact the influence of social media can have on the Fashion industry, the world is moving and progressing through social media and those who chose not to utilize this part of technology so widely used, are going to fall behind those who do. People who are very high up in social media have a very big platform to promote and influence others. Nowadays if you have a huge amount of followers you are practically famous with all eyes watching you. Fashion corporations want people who have this huge platform on social media to promote their styles due to the fact people are going to be strongly persuaded to want or to want to look like something if someone they keep up with on social media looks a certain way or wears a certain piece. Fashion trends from all over the world come to meet each other, merge, change and evolve through social media. The concept of the seeShow MoreRelatedThe Impacts of Fast Fashion and Technology on the Fashion Industry1431 Words   |  6 Pages This essay will discuss Fast Fashion and the Impact of Technology. I will focus on the different levels of the market, the effect of fast fashion on fashion design, how copying effects high end designer brands and the impact of technology on the fashion industry. 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These risks will be to assessed through their impact on the company and proposed strategies to overcome when faced with risks. 5.1 Industry Risk Assessment The development of the fashion industry is huge in the UK and now the retail industry also shows growth. This indicates that the company has the opportunity to earn profits, but there are still several factors that may affect the company s profitability. Labor costs Competition in the fashion market is veryRead MoreSustainable, Environmentally Friendly And Ethical Products1227 Words   |  5 Pagesinto a global trend and became an integral part of (fashion) design and production process [1]. It is a stage in the life cycle of fashion garment. Why so? Because it explores approaches such as low impact textiles techniques, zero waste techniques, repair and maintenance techniques, closed-loop design systems, low-impact manufacturing technologies, mono-materiality, design durability, and up cycling. Sustainable fashion, also known as eco fashion, is part of the larger growing trend of creating moreRead MoreMarketing Strategy For The New Marketing Opportunity Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pages3. The final part of the assessment involves determining the final marketing mix in relation to the new marketing opportunity. As part of finalising your marketing mix, answer the following questions: ï‚ §Ã¯â‚¬  What environmental factors could have an impact on the selected marketing mix e.g. economic conditions, the political or legal environment, etc? †¢ Competition: To compete in new market, company has to do marketing mix and determine market strategy for Price, Place, products and promotions. †¢ EconomicalRead MoreMarketing Planning Of H M986 Words   |  4 Pagesgood marketers in Adverting create a recycle Fashion in designs. HM has good Excellent skills in customers service they have a Fashion collection for very good value. The Capabilities of HM combines ware with the physical infrastructure shops in the high street and win capitals in the world fashion window shop design. Over the next few three years HM aims to becoming more competitive winning competitive they are all recycle clothes in a recycle fashion with a brand Competencies are Formed of coreRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1521 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. The definition of globalisation is quite complex and extremely controversial. However globalization with reference to the fashion industry helps defines the development of what has been termed as „world fashion‟. Preferred garments of young people is quite often the same. A phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of globalization. The globalization ofRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1527 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. The definition of globalisation is quite complex and extremely controversial. However globalization with reference to the fashion industry helps defines the development of what has been termed as „world fashion‟. Preferred garments of young people is quite often the same. A phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of globalization. The globalization

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Michael Gow Will Be The Road Not Taken By...

It’s known that everyone has their own way of understanding and developing into the concept of self-discovery through different types of ways this can include emotional, creative, intellectual, physical and spiritual. So, the question is, does self-discovery only work within an individual or can it be influenced by others around us? Morning, teachers and fellow class mates. My prescribed related text to away by Michael gow will be the road not taken by Robert frost. Away explores the concept of self-discovery and transformation through the characters as they change. By encountering a physical journey, it provides the character with new perspective on life and an understanding attitude away from the strenuous and monotonous activities.†¦show more content†¦The stage direction, â€Å"Gwen and Jim embrace† shows her self-realization has also led to reconciliation between her and Jim, her husband. This emphasises the power of love combined with the power of nature whist in the environment of the beach. Through a valuable physical journey Gwen has been provided with an opportunity to broaden her perception of life. Similarly Coral, another protagonist, is depicted as experiencing emotional development as a result of her journey, to the Gold Coast. The literal journey parallels her metaphysical travels. Dialogue and character interaction reveal her suffering before her holiday. Due to Coral’s deep suffering from the tragic loss of her only son in the Vietnam War she has neglected to interact and connect with people. â€Å"You’re on your honeymoon, aren’t you?† shows Coral has learnt to freely communicate with fellow travellers in orderly fashion whist on her holiday. Still Coral feels confined by her husband’s threat of hospitalization so she escapes to a more natural environment. At the beach Coral meets Tom, a catalyst for her change. Their conversation got her â€Å"back into the swim.† This is emphasised by Coral’s participation in â€Å"The Stranger on the Shore,† where she reiterates her past, â€Å"I’m walking† suggests she has accepted the true facts of reality. â€Å"The light becomes bright, summery,† this stage direction demonstrates

Financial Analysis of Microsoft Corporation Free Essays

Introduction BACKGROUND OF MICROSOFT Microsoft is the most prominent technology corporation in the world that deals with computers according to posts from big ’’ With annual revenues of more than $32 billion, Microsoft Corporation is more than the largest software company in the world: it is a cultural phenomenon. We will write a custom essay sample on Financial Analysis of Microsoft Corporation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The company’s core business is based on developing, manufacturing, and licensing software products, including operating systems, server applications, business and consumer applications, and software development tools, as well as Internet software, technologies, and services’’. ‘’The name of the famous person – Bill Gates comes in one’s mind with mention of the name of Microsoft. He is the founder of the company and is believed to be the smartest programmers ever.’’ Led by him, Microsoft had witnessed its heydays and has been able to have its product on almost every personal computer in the world, and in the process creating standards in the technology industry as well as market re-definition. ‘’Gates was first exposed to computers at school in the late 1960s with his friend Paul Allen, the son of two Seattle librarians. By the time Gates was 14; the two friends were writing and testing computer programs for fun and profit. In 1972 they established their first company, Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer that recorded and analyzed traffic data. Allen went on to study computer science at the University of Washington and then dropped out to work at Honeywell, while Gates enrolled at Harvard. Inspired in 1975 by an issue of Popular Electronics that showed the new Altair microcomputer kit just released by MITS Computer, Gates and Allen wrote a version of BASIC for the machine. Later that year Gates left college to work full time developing programming languages for the Altair, and he and Allen relocated to Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be near MITS Computer, where Allen took a position as director of software development. Gates and Allen named their partn ership Micro-soft’’. The word Microsoft was developed from two different words, micro from microcomputer and soft from software. The name was registered in New Mexico with the secretary of state in November 1976. On November 1978, the first international office of Microsoft was established in Japan and its name was ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). It is now known as Microsoft Japan. In January 1979 the company’s headquarters was moved to Bellevue Washington. In the early 80’s, Microsoft witnessed a period of great success when IBM contracted the company to develop an operating system for its personal computers (PC), which was underway. In the late 80’s Microsoft issued IPOs (initial public offering) of over two million shares and in the space of one year the price or the shares tripled and in the process making Gates a billionaire at about thirty years of age. Nonetheless, the company had lots of critics and legal cases against it from competitors and the likes. Microsoft success was further heightened by the tech bubble of the 2000 following the release of the windows XP, windows 2000,the acquisition of Visio corporation which stood as the largest acquisition in the life of Microsoft so far with transaction value of about One and half a billion dollars. The company also spread its tentacles into the world of gaming with their popularly known X-BOX which has remained a success till date. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF MICROSOFT’ PERFORMANCE OVERTIME Key Dates: 1975: Microsoft is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen; they sell BASIC, the first PC computer language program to MITS Computer, Microsoft’s first customer. 1981: Microsoft, Inc. is incorporated; IBM uses Microsoft’s 16-bit operating system for its first personal computer. 1982: Microsoft, U.K., Ltd. is incorporated. 1983: Paul Allen resigns as executive vice-president but remains on the board; Jon Shirley is made president of Microsoft (he later becomes CEO); Microsoft introduces the Microsoft Mouse and Word for MS-DOS 1.00. 1985: Microsoft and IBM forge a joint development agreement. 1986: Microsoft stock goes public at $21 per share. 1987: The Company’s first CD-ROM application, Microsoft Bookshelf, is released. 1990: Jon Shirley retires as president and CEO; Michael R. Hallman is promoted in Shirley’s place; the company becomes the first PC software firm to surpass $1 billion of sales in a single year. 1992: Bill Gates is awarded the National Medal of Technology for Technological Achievement. 1993: The Company introduces Windows NT. 1995: Bill Gates publishes his first book, The Road Ahead. 1996: The Company acquires Vermeer Technologies and its software application, FrontPage. 1997: The Justice Department alleges that Microsoft violated a 1994 consent decree concerning licensing the Windows operating system to computer manufacturers. 1998: The U.S. Department of Justice files two antitrust cases against Microsoft, alleging the company had violated the Sherman Act. 2000: The Company acquires Visio Corporation, its largest acquisition to date. 2001: Microsoft Windows XP is released internationally. 2003: Microsoft launches Windows Server 2003. 2007: Microsoft launches Windows vista 2009: Microsoft launches windows 7 Source: Balance sheet for Microsoft Corporation as at 30th June 2011. (Annually) Assets [+]in Millions of Dollars 06/2010 06/2009 06/2008 06/2007 06/2006 Cash and Equivalents5,505 6,076 10,339 6,111 6,714 Restrictable Cash– – – – – Marketable Securities31,283 25,371 13,323 17,300 27,447 Accounts Receivable13,014 11,192 13,589 11,338 9,316 Loans Receivable– – – – – Other Receivables– – – – – Receivables13,014 11,192 13,589 11,338 9,316 Inventories, Raw Materials172 170 417 435 465 Inventories, Work in Progress16 45 31 148 – Inventories, Purchased Components– – – – – Inventories, Finished Goods552 502 537 544 1,013 Inventories, Other– – – – – Inventories, Adjustments Allowances– – – – – Inventories740 717 985 1,127 1,478 Prepaid Expenses– – – – – Current Deferred Income Taxes2,184 2,213 2,017 1,899 1,940 Other Current Assets2,950 3,711 2,989 2,393 2,115 Total Current Assets55,676 49,280 43,242 40,168 49,010 Land and Improvements526 526 518 428 362 Buildings and Improvement8,187 7,824 6,030 4,247 3,146 Machinery, Furniture and Equipment7,546 6,732 5,996 4,691 3,715 Construction in Progress– – – – – Fixed Assets, Other– – – – – Fixed Assets, Total16,259 15,082 12,544 9,366 7,223 Gross Fixed Assets16,259 15,082 12,544 9,366 7,223 Accumulated Depreciation(8,629) (7,547) (6,302) (5,016) (4,179) Net Fixed Assets7,630 7,535 6,242 4,350 3,044 Intangibles1,158 1,759 1,973 878 539 Cost in Excess12,394 12,503 12,108 4,760 3,866 Non-Current Deferred Income Taxes– 279 949 1,389 2,611 Other Non-Current Assets9,255 6,532 8,279 11,626 10,527 Total Non-Current Assets30,437 28,608 29,551 23,003 20,587 Total Assets86,113 77,888 72,793 63,171 69,597 Liabilities [+]in Millions of Dollars 06/2010 06/2009 06/2008 06/2007 06/2006 Accounts Payable4,207 5,008 4,034 3,247 2,909 Short Term Debt1,000 2,000 – – – Notes Payable– – – – – Accrued Expenses– – – – – Accrued Liabilities3,283 3,156 2,934 2,325 1,938 Deferred Revenues13,652 13,003 13,397 10,779 9,138 Current Deferred Income Taxes– – – – 1,557 Other Current Liabilities4,005 3,867 9,521 7,403 6,900 Total Current Liabilities26,147 27,034 29,886 23,754 22,442 Long Term Debt4,939 3,746 – – – Deferred Income Tax229 – – – – Other Non-Current Liabilities8,623 7,550 6,621 8,320 7,051 Minority Interest– – – – – Capital Lease Obligations– – – – – Preferred Securities of Subsidiary Trust– – – – – Preferred Equity Outside Shareholders’ Equity– – – – – Total Non-Current Liabilities13,791 11,296 6,621 8,320 7,051 Total Liabilities39,938 38,330 36,507 32,074 29,493 Preferred Shareholder’s Equity– – – – – Common Shareholder’s Equity46,175 39,558 36,286 31,097 40,104 Common Par62,856 62,382 62,849 – – Additional Paid in Capital– – – 60,557 59,005 Cumulative Translation Adjustments– – – 149 – Retained Earnings(16,681) (22,824) (26,563) (31,114) (20,130) Treasury Stock– – – – – Other Equity Adjustments– – – 1,505 1,229 Total Capitalization51,114 43,304 36,286 31,097 40,104 Total Equity46,175 39,558 36,286 31,097 40,104 Total Liabilities Shareholder’s Equity86,113 77,888 72,793 63,171 69 Closing price =$25.51 Volume sold =25.16m Source: [Accessed 4 April 2011]. With more descriptive statistics, we can also examine the performance of Microsoft on a monthly basis from the year 1988- 2009 using returns (unit%) See excel for descriptive statistics. Microsoft return (unit %) Market return (unit %) Mean0.021622876 Mean0.857870722 Standard Error0.00618845 Standard Error0.269942879 Median0.022084196 Median1.41 Mode0.064221396 Mode1.78 Standard Deviation0.100359793 Standard Deviation4.377737838 Sample Variance0.010072088 Sample Variance19.16458858 Kurtosis1.421423202 Kurtosis1.709578314 Skewness0.366537791 Skewness-0.812673531 Range0.751310392 Range29.51 Minimum-0.343529412 Minimum-18.46 Maximum0.40778098 Maximum11.05 Sum5.686816298 Sum225.62 Count263 Count263 From the descriptive statistics above, Microsoft has a positive skewness unlike the market whose skewness is negative, this indicates that Microsoft has a better flow or return than the market. It could also be noted that Microsoft is (1) standard deviation away from its mean whereas the market is (4) standard deviation away from its mean, this means that the returns of Microsoft had not been too volatile over the years and return on stocks are less risky. COMPARISON OF MOCROSOFT PERFORMANCE WITH SP 500 (MARKET) USING T-TEST See t-test on Excel H0: Microsoft did not outperform the market H1: Microsoft outperformed the market t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means Variable 1 Variable 2 Mean0.021622876 0.857870722 Variance0.010072088 19.16458858 Observations263 263 Pearson Correlation0.539530773 Hypothesized Mean Difference0 df262 t Stat-3.136067434 P(T=t) one-tail0.000953757 t Critical one-tail1.650690284 P(T=t) two-tail0.001907515 t Critical two-tail1.969059657 Conclusion: From the t-Test above, since the t-stats is greater in value than the t -critical (irrespective of the -ve sign), we need to accept the alternative hypothesis (H1) which says that Microsoft outperformed the market and reject the Null hypothesis (H0) which says that Microsoft did not outperform the market. We can also infer this conclusion by looking at the P- value, here we can see that the p- value is less than the significance level of .05, therefore we need to accept the alternative hypothesis (H1). ANALYSIS OF MICROSOFT PERFORMANCE WITH CAPM Regression Statistics Multiple R0.258985259 R Square0.067073365 Adjusted R Square0.063498933 Standard Error0.185690508 Observations263 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression1 0.647027164 0.647027164 18.764764 2.11102E-05 Residual261 8.999531777 0.034480965 Total262 9.646558942 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept-0.32415329 0.011530623 -28.1123831 6.17385E-81 -0.346858177 -0.30145 -0.34686 -0.30145 X Variable 10.011371441 0.002625088 4.331831484 2.11102E-05 0.006202393 0.01654 0.006202 0.01654 CAPM :- E(R)=RF+?[RM-RF] By substituting the CAPM formula into the regression, we have Y= ?+?x+e Y = dependent variable ? = intercept ? = co-efficient of independent variable e =error When x=0, ? is an estimate of Y, then excess return of Microsoft would be given as: Excess return= -0.32415329+0.011371441+0.185690508 Adjusted R Square = 0.063498933 The adjusted R Square indicates that 6.3% of the variability in the excess return of Microsoft is explained by the market. I.e. for every percentage change of return in the market, Microsoft’s return changes by 6.3%. BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrews, Paul. How the Web Was Won: Microsoft from Windows to the Web: The Inside Story of How Bill Gates and His Band of Internet Idealists Transformed a Software Empire. New York: Random House, 1999. Consuming, Michael A., Microsoft Secrets: How the World’s Most Powerful Software Company Creates Technology, Shapes Markets, and Manages People, New York: Free Press, 1995, 512 p. Desmond, Edward W., â€Å"Microsoft’s Big Bet on Small Machines,† Fortune, July 20, 1998, pp. 86-90. â€Å"EU, Microsoft Clash Over Monopoly Ruling,† Associated Press, April 29, 2004. Evers, Joris, â€Å"Ballmer: Windows Server 2003 Does More with Less,† IDG News Service (San Francisco Bureau). France, Mike, â€Å"Microsoft: The View at Halftime,† Business Week, January 25, 1999, p. 78. Hamm, Steve, â€Å"No Letup–And No Apologies: Antitrust Scrutiny Hasn’t Eased Microsoft’s Competitiveness,† Business Week, October 26, 1998, p. 58. Higgins, David, â€Å"The Man Who Owns the Future,† Sydney Morning Herald, March 14, 1998, p. 1. Iceboat, Daniel, and Susan L. Knepper, The Making of Microsoft: How Bill Gates and His Team Created the World’s Most Successful Software Company, Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing, 1991, 304 p. Ichbiah, Daniel, and Susan L. Knepper. The Making of Microsoft: How Bill Gates and His Team Created the World’s Most Successful Software Company. New York: St. Martin’s, 1991. Isaacson, Walter, â€Å"In Search of the Real Bill Gates,† Time Magazine, January 13, 1997, pp. 44+. Kirkpatrick, David, â€Å"He Wants All Your Business–And He’s Starting to Get It,† Fortune, May 26, 1997, pp. 58+. Kirkpatrick, David, â€Å"Microsoft: Is Your Company Its Next Meal?,† Fortune, April 27, 1998, pp. 92-102. Krantz, Michael, â€Å"If You Can’t Beat ‘Em †¦ Will Bill Gates’ Bailout Save Apple–Or Just Strengthen Microsoft’s Hand in the Web Wars?,† Time Magazine, August 18, 1997, pp. 35+. Manes, Stephen, and Paul Andrews, Gates: How Microsoft’s Mogul Reinvented an Industry–And Made Himself the Richest Man in America, New York: Doubleday, 1993. Mardesich, Jodi, â€Å"What’s Weighing Down Microsoft?,† Fortune, January 11, 1999, pp. 147-48. McKenzie, Richard B., Trust on Trial: How the Microsoft Case Is Reframing the Rules of Competition, Perseus Publishing, 2000. Microsoft Corporation. Inside Out: Microsoft—In Our Own Words. New York: Warner Books, 2000. Moody, Fred, I Sing the Body Electronic: A Year with Microsoft on the Multimedia Frontier, New York: Viking, 1995, 311 p. Nocera, Joseph, â€Å"High Noon,† Fortune, November 23, 1998, pp. 162+. Pollock, Andrew, â€Å"Media; Microsoft Makes Another Interactive TV Investment,† New York Times, January 24, 2000. Schlender, Brent, â€Å"What Bill Gates Really Wants,† Fortune, January 16, 1995, pp. 34+. Stross, Randall E., The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1996, 318 p. Wallace, James, and Jim Erickson, Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire, New York: Wiley, 1992, 426 p. Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.63. St. James Press, 2004. Company-History.html How to cite Financial Analysis of Microsoft Corporation, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Customer Satisfaction in the Practices in the Hotels/Inns and Resorts Essay Example

Customer Satisfaction in the Practices in the Hotels/Inns and Resorts Paper CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON THE PRACTICES OF THE HOTELS/INNS AND RESORTS IN THE FIRST DISTRICT OF ILOCOS SUR A Thesis Proposal Presented to The Faculty of Graduate School University of Northern Philippines Vigan City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Business Administration By: VIVENCIO C. PERALTA JR. 2011-2012 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Introduction Throughout history, people have always travelled, whether it is to conquer worlds, discover new places, for business pleasure. This need of man has consequently led to the development of accommodation. Travelling is a significant part of the tourism industry worldwide and its employees play a key role in delivering the service product, its customers. All of the service businesses are trying their best to improve their service quality in order to make customers satisfied with their services, especially the hospitality industry. Inns are the outgrowth of man’s desire to travel for pleasure or for business. When man had to travel, he felt a great need for dining and lodging out of his own home and town (chauhan, 1981). Hotels/Inns and Resorts are provide room accommodation, food and beverages and recreational facilities. Hotels/Inns and Resorts have been established in the different parts of the country especially in cities and some major towns Today, in Ilocos Sur the potential growth and industrialization and its program to promote local and foreign tourism led to the growth of the hotels/inns and resorts that are serving the province. We will write a custom essay sample on Customer Satisfaction in the Practices in the Hotels/Inns and Resorts specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Customer Satisfaction in the Practices in the Hotels/Inns and Resorts specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Customer Satisfaction in the Practices in the Hotels/Inns and Resorts specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer At present, they were continues the greater number of tourist due to the beautification of our natural resources that gives the real essence of life of the Ilocano’s and preserved the rich/cultural heritage like the ancestral house that depicts the historical landmark of the country, being a surviving colonial provinces during the Spanish regime. Locals and experts describe that the Ilocos Sur as a place like no other because of its uniqueness his in its historical townscape for which it is an architectural blend of Asian, European and Latin American influences. At present, Hotels/Inns and Resorts in Ilocos Sur have increased their competition and now instead of having only a nice room to draw customer in, they offer-high quality staff as an amenity as well. Guest satisfaction is the highest priority for the owners and managers competing with hundreds of others, and personal service is at the top of the travelers and list of the most important things when considering a hotels/inns and resorts to stay in (Wipoosattaya, 2001). In the hotels/inns and resorts, the personnel are ranging from the top management (i. e housekeeping, restaurant, front office and kitchen). The personnel are considered a supporting factor in determining customer satisfaction when deciding to return, to recommend the hotels/inns and resorts, or in demonstrating loyalty to a particular hotels/inn and resorts (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000). In addition, Watt (2007), stated that the important function of the hotels/inn and resorts is the front office because customer deals with it as a the center of the hotels/inns and resorts. They provide assistance to guest, fulfil their needs, and meet their wants. The study of Suwannakun and Siriteerajad (2002) emphasized that the aspects of practices regarding the level of customer satisfaction. As mention above, Service quality was determined as the subjective comparison that customer make between their expectation about the service and the perception of the way the service has been run. Parasuraman et. Al (1985) defined service quality as function of the differences between expectations and performance along ten major dimensions. In later research, Parasuraman et. Al (1988) revised and defined the service quality in terms of five dimension; Tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. For example, Min and Min (1997) presented the idea hat hotels/inns and resorts services have attributes that are considered most important particularly in forming the following impression of service quality such as; quality; tangibility; In the Mauritius Hotels (Juwaheer and Ross, 2003), assurance factors and such as security and safety of guest determined by the first , secondly; reliability factors and such as hotels perform task that have been promised to guest on reso lving problems encountered by the guests. Juwaheer and Ross found that by focusing on these factors, hotels in Mauritius would be able to achieve high levels of satisfaction. As Reisig and Chandek (2001) discussed the expectation is formed in order to identify the factors of service satisfaction, based on their knowledge of a product or service. This can be implied that a customer may estimate what the service performance will be or may think what the performance ought to be. If the service performance meets or exceeds customers’ expectation, the customers are more likely to be dissatisfied. On the other hand, customers are more likely if the service performance is less than what they have expected. As mentioned earlier, a greater number of satisfied customers will make the hotels/inns and resorts business more successful and more profitable. Statement of the Problem This study will aim to determine the level of customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/ inns and resorts of the first district of Ilocos Sur. Specifically, it will seek to answer for the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the hotels/inns and resorts with the aforementioned business related factors in terms of the following variables; a. Type of ownership b. Number of rooms . Number of Employees d. Capital e. Years of existence f. Service offered 2. What is the level of customers satisfaction with the aforementioned practices of the hotels/inns and resorts in terms of the following: a. Tangibility b. Reliability c. Responsiveness d. Assurance e. Empathy 3. Is there a significant relationship between the profiles of the hotels/inns and resorts with the aforementioned business related factors an d the level of customer satisfaction with the aforementioned marketing practices of the hotels/inns and resorts? . What are the problems issues encountered by the hotels/inns and resorts? Scope and Delimitation The study focused on the Level of Customer Satisfaction on the Practices applied and adopted by the Hotels/Inns and Resorts on the first district of Ilocos Sur as perceived by the owners/managers. This practice was limited to the level of customer satisfaction in the aforementioned marketing practices of hotels/ inns and resorts on the first district of Ilocos Sur in terms of the following: tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, assurance, empathy. Twenty-Six (26) hotels/inns and resorts constituted in the study which 41 owners/managers were taken as respondents. Purposive sampling for the customer respondents was taken which consists of 318 customers to evaluate the level of customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels and resorts only the customers who checked-in in the hotels/inns and resorts during the data gathering period comprised the customers respondent. The data analysis was limited only to the use of the following statistical tools: frequency and percentages, mean and chi square. Theoretical Framework The researcher will be guided by the following concepts and studies that provided relevant ideas that will be in this study. On Customer Satisfaction In a business organization it is their primarily concerned in satisfying customers. The existence of one business establishment will also depend on how the costumers are satisfied with the products / services offered to them. To completely satisfy customers needs and wants the management should look the variety of their products, its quality, the ffordability and the benefits derived from the products / services offered. Most researcher agree that satisfaction is an attitude or evaluation that is formed by the customer comparing their pre-purchase expectation of what they would receive from the product to their subjective perceptions of the performance they actually did receive (Oliver, 1980). As Kotler (2,000, p. 36) defined that satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting fr om comparing a products perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectation. Additionally, Yi (1990) also stated that customer satisfaction is a collective outcome of perception, evaluation and psychological reactions to the consumption experience with a product / service. In conclusion, customer satisfaction is defined as a result of customer’s evaluation to the consumption experience with the services. However, the customers have different levels of satisfaction as they have different attitudes and perceived performance from the product / service. Customer satisfaction is an important topic for both researchers and managers, because a high level of customer satisfaction leads to an increase in repeat patronage among current customers and aids customer recruitment by enhancing an organization marker reputation. Being able to successfully judge customer’s satisfaction levels and to apply that knowledge are critical starting points to establishing and maintaining long term customer retention and long term competitiveness (Yuskel and Yuskel, 2002). Customer satisfaction brings many benefits. Satisfaction is an â€Å"overall customer attitude towards a service provider†, or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive ( Zineldrin, 2000), regarding the fulfilment of some need, goal or desire. Kano, Bentler and Li-tze (1984) developed a model to categorize the attributes of a product or service based on how well they are able to satisfy customer needs. Considering Kano’s Model, are sees how it may not be enough to merely satisfy customer by meeting only their basic and performance needs. Customer satisfaction refers to either a discrete, time-limited event or the entire time the service is experienced. Service-encounter satisfaction is how much a customer likes or dislikes an actual service encounter. Overall service satisfaction is the customers feeling of satisfaction/dissatisfaction based on all the customers experiences with the service organization. 1994) found the two satisfaction constructs differed from each other and from service quality. In a highly competitive marketplace, organizations needs to adopt strategies and to create product attributes targeted specifically at exciting customer’s and over – satisfying them ( Tan and Panitra, 2001). In real estate to excite or over satisfy customers, an agent would need to have a through and want knowledge of all listing in the local area. It is also the people in direct contact with customer who determine who the retained and satisfied customers are, and their experience determines how they treat the customers (Hansemark and Albinson, 2004), thus impacting on the service quality delivered. Lewis and Mitchell (1990) define service quality as they extent to which a service meets customer’s need and expectation. On Service Quality Service quality is the rivet of the comparison that customer’s make between their expectation about a service and their perception of the way the service has been performed (Germoso, 1984; Parasuraman et a1. 1980-1988. ) define it, as the difference between customer’s expectation of services and their perceived service. Benny, Parasuraman and Zeithaml (1985) write a service quality as perceived by consumers stems from a comparison of what they feel service firms should offer (i. e. from their expectations) with their perception of the performance of the firm providing the s ervice. If the expectation is greater than the service performance, perceived quality is less than satisfactory and hence, customer dissatisfaction occurs. Lewis and Mitchell (1990). Service quality refers to customers appraisals of the service core, the provider, or the entire service organization. According to and  (1985), perceived quality is a global judgment relating to the superiority of a product. However, defining service quality as a measure of excellence in terms of perceptions is not sufficient according to   (1988). He states that it is obvious that understanding customer expectations and meeting customer needs is the single most critical issue and determinant of service quality ( 1988). In addition,  (1989) and   (1983) defined both service quality and customer satisfaction as matching the expectation of the service with that which is actually experienced by the customer. Therefore, when customers experiences meet or exceed their expectations, the service is viewed as a quality service and the recipients are typically satisfied customers. On the other hand, when the service experienced by consumers is less than their expectations, the perception of service quality is diminished and customers are generally not satisfied. However, (1996b) in their book Services Marketing stated that the concept of service quality is different from the concept of customer satisfaction. According to, service quality is only one of the variables determining customer satisfaction. Besides service quality, there are other variables affecting the level of customer satisfaction, namely: price, situation, and personal factors. Dotchin and Oakland (1994), and Avubonteng et a1. (1996) define service quality and the extent to which a service meets customer’s need and expectation. On Customer Expectation In this part, the definition of Customer’s expectation and Discrimination theory are revealed. In addition, the significance of Customer’s expectation which has influenced customer’s satisfaction in discussed. Daviddon and Uttal (1989) proposed that customer’s expectation is formed by many uncontrollable factors which include previous experience with other companies, and their advertising, customer’s psychological condition at the same of service delivery, customer background and values and the images of the purchased product. In addition Zeithaml et al. (1990) stated that customer service expectation related to different levels of satisfaction. It may based on previous product experiences, learning from advertisement and Word-of-Mouth Communications. Moreover, these expectations are likely to be based, in total or in part, on past relevant experiences, including those gathered vicariously (1989). (1990) identify some specific factors which can influence the consumers expectations. These are: word of mouth communications (what consumers hear from other consumers); personal needs (determined by individual characteristics and circumstances); past experience of a service (or a related service); external communications from the service provider (for example, printed advertisements, television commercials, brochures, and oral promises from service provider employees); and price. Customer expectation is what the customer wish to receive from the diversity f expectation definition can be concluded that expectation is uncontrollable factors which including past experiences, advertising, customers perception at the time or purchase, background, attitude and product image. Furthermore, the influence of customer’s expectation is pre-purchase belief, word of mouth, communications, individual needs, customer experiences, and other personal attitudes. Different customers have different expectations based on the customer’s knowledge by a product service. The Ser vqual Approach The Servqual approach has been applied in service and retailing organizations (Parasuraman et al. 1988; Parasuraman et. al. , 1991). Service quality is a function of pre-purchase customer’s expectation, perceived process quality, and perceived output quality. Parasuraman et. al (1988) define service quality as the gap between customer’s expectation of service and their perception of the service experience. Based on Parasuraman et al. (1988) conceptualization of service quality, the original servqual instrument included 22 items. The data on the 22 attributes were grouped into five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Numerous studies have attempt to apply the SERVQUAL. This is because it has generic service applications and is a practical approach to the area. This instrument has been made to measure service quality in a variety of services such as hospitals (Babalure and Glymn 1992), hotels(Salen and Rylan 1991), travel and tourism(Fick and Ritchies 1991), a telephone Company, two insurance companies and two researcher uses SERVQUAL approach as an instrument to explore customer’s expectations and perception levels of service quality towards the hotel and resorts. The Servqual Dimension Previously, Parasuraman et al. (1985) identify ten determinants for measuring service quality which are tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, communication, access, competence, courtesy, credibility, security and understanding knowledge of customers. Later these ten dimensions were further purified and developed into five dimensions i. e. Tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy to measure service quality, servqual (Parasuraman et al. 1988). These five dimension identified as follows: 1. Tangibility – the physical evidence of the Hotel/Inns and Resorts staff is including a personality and appearance of personnel, tools, and equipment used to provide the service. For example, some hotel chains (e. g Hilton, Mandarin, Sheraton, and Hyatt) consciously ensure that their properties are conformed to global standards of facilities wherever they are located (Nankervis, 1995). However, the researcher, in this study, is forming on how well-dresses the Hotel/Inns and Resorts personnel are. 2. Reliability – the ability involves to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. It includes â€Å"Doing it right the first time,† which is one of the most important service components for customers. Reliability also extends to provide services when promised and maintain error-free seconds. The following examples present the reliability factor. Example 1: The staffs perform tasks that have been promised to guest and resolve problems encountered by guests. Example 2: The Customers are sensitive to issue such as the telephone being packed-up within five rings and their reservation being correct. 3. Responsiveness – the Hotels/Inns and Resorts are willing to help customers and provide prompt service to customers such as quick service, professionalism in handling and recovering from mistakes. It has been said that â€Å"Today luxury is time†. Consequently, service providers’ ability to provide services in timely manner is a critical component of service quality for many guests. The examples of responsiveness are as follows: Example 1: The staff is asking for customers, name, address, post code and Telephone number during the telephone booking. Example 2: The customers are asked to guarantee their booking, the different rates that they are offered and which ones they accept. Example 3: The customers are offered alternative accommodation at a sister hotel and how efficiently that is arranged and reservation cards being ready to sign upon arrival. 4. Assurance refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence including competence, courtesy, credibility and security. A. Competence means possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the services. It involves knowledge and skill of the contact personnel, knowledge and skill of operational support personnel, research capability of the organization. B. Courtesy involves politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact personnel. C. Credibility involves trust worthiness, believability, honesty; it involves having the customer’s best interest at heart. Contributing to credibility is company reputations, personal characteristics of the contact personnel. The degree of hard sell involved in interaction with the customer. D. Security refers to the freedom from danger, risk or doubt. It involves physical safety, financial security and confidentiality. Below are some examples: Example 1: The guests expect to feel safe during their stay at hotel from the staff. Example 2: The staff can handle effectively complaints and problems from the guests. 5. Empathy refers to the provision of caring and individualized attention to customers including access, communication and understanding the customers. A. Access involves approach, ability and ease of contact. It means the service is easily accessible by telephone, waiting time to receive service is not extensive, hours of operation are convenient and location of service facility is convenient. B. Communication means keeping customers informed in language they can understand. It means listening to customers, adjusting its language for different consumers and speaking simply and plainly with a novice. It also involves explaining the service itself, explaining how much the service will cost, and assuring the customer that a problem will be handled. C. Understanding the customers means making the effort to understand the customer’s need. It includes learning the customer’s specific requirements, providing individualized attention, recognizing the regular custom. For example: Example 1: The staff acknowledge the presence of customers at the reception and with a verbal greeting. Example 2: The staff are keeping eye contact, using customers, names and asking customers to return their key upon departure. It is clear from the above results that customers like to be given enough individualized attention and treated with care. It thus allows the customers to easily approach and spell out their needs regarding the service being provided. The importance of empathy may be the root of the statement, . If one looks at who is winning, it tends to be companies that see the guest as an individual1. Due to guests, desires that staff see things from their point of view, the hotel staff are piloting an empathy training program intended to help employees relate to their guests in a more empathic manner. In conclusion, SERVQUAL instrument is an invaluable tool for organizations to better understand what customers’ value and how well their current organizations are meeting the needs and expectations of customers. SERVQUAL provides a benchmark based on customer opinions of an excellent company, on your company, on the importance ranking of key attributes, and on a comparison to what your employees believe customers feel. The SERVQUAL instrument can also be applied to the front office staff of a hotel, and in this case, other major gaps could be closed in the service quality gaps model. Disconfirmation Theory In marketing literature (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; Oliver,1980) as well as in recent information system studies (McKinney et al. , 2002), the disconfirmation theory emerges as the primary foundation for satisfaction models. According to this theory, satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between perceived performance and cognitive standards such as expectation and desires (Khalifa and Liu, 2003). Customers expectation can be defined as customers’ partial beliefs about a product (McKinney, Yoon and Zahedi, 2002). Expectations are viewed as predictions made by consumers about what is likely to happen during impending transaction or exchange (Zeithmal and Berry,1988). Perceived performance is defined as customers’ perception of how product performance fulfills their needs, wants and desire (Cadotte et al. 1987). Perceived quality is the consumers’ judgment about an entities overall excellence or superiority (Zeithmal, 1988). Disconfirmation is defined as consumer subjective judgments resulting from comparing their expectations and their perceptions of performance received (McKinney et al. , 2002, Spreng et al. , 1996). Disconfirmation theory was declared that satisfaction is mai nly defined by the gap between perceived performance, expectations and desires which is a promising approach to explain satisfaction. This theory was proposed that satisfaction is affected by the intensity (or size) and direction (positive or negative) of the gap (disconfirmation) between expectations and perceived performance (Figure 2) Figure 2 Expectation disconfirmation theory Khalifa and Liu (2003) Expectation disconfirmation occurs in three forms: 1) Positive disconfirmation: occurs when perceived performance exceeds expectations. 2) Confirmation: occurs when perceived performance meets expectations. 3) Negative disconfirmation: occurs when perceived performance does not meet and is less than the expectations. It is more probable for customers to be satisfied if the service performance meets (confirmation) or exceeds (positive disconfirmation) their expectations. On the contrary, customers are more likely to be dissatisfied if the service performance is less than what they expected (negative disconfirmation). Khalifa Liu (2003) discussed that taking expectation disconfirmation as the only determinant of satisfaction; this theory does not cause the fact that if high expectations are confirmed, it would much more lead to satisfaction than confirmation of low expectations. To resolve this drawback perceived performance is included as an additional determinant of satisfaction. In other words the only way to ensure satisfaction is to empirically create disconfirmation by manipulating expectations and performance. Related Studies Many previous researchers have studied customer satisfaction towards service quality in service businesses such as spa, tourism, and hotel. Kitisuda (2006) studied a survey of customer satisfaction with spa services at Sivalai Spa. Both first-time and repeated customers were satisfied with the spa services on a high level. They were satisfied with the following service dimensions: responsiveness, empathy, reliability, assurance, and tangibility of the service quality at Sivalai Spa. Most customers agreed that the location of the spa was the most important factor for the spa. They suggested that the food and beverage facilities should be improved. Moreover, the study showed that there were four demographic factors that influenced the service quality at Sivalai Spa which were gender, age, nationality, and Income. Markovic (2004) studied service quality measurement in the Croatian Hotel Industry. She showed that a SERVQUAL instrument is a useful and reliable method to measure service quality of Croations hotels, for managers to identify differences in terms of expectations and perceptions. This method will lead to a better allocation of resources and a more effective design of marketing strategies, such as communications mix and pricing components, to ensure a proper level of service quality in hotels. Phenphun (2003) studied International tourist, satisfaction with the quality of service in accommodation in Thailand and the factors related to satisfaction, problems and the requirements of international tourists. The research revealed the satisfaction of international tourists towards quality of service was at a high level. However, the most common problems were lack of employees’ knowledge and English skill, therefore, tourists suggested language and convenient facility improvement. Therefore, Government Policy suggests that the TAT and related organizations should create and develop a curriculum and training. Accordingly, they also have to focus on language skills. In the 2001 study tour of Taiwan, Yu (2001) indicated that it might be possible to create service quality evaluations that are more accurate instruments for measuring the quality of service in the various service sectors, as Crompton et al. ,(1991) suggested. For the best indicators of service quality in the tourism sector, the tourist’s experience might be the key indicator for evaluating tourism quality because the tourism industry is essential people serving people. Therefore, Otto and Ritchie (1996) stated that future studies of tourism quality should evaluate the tourist’s experience, instead of the five dimensions used in previous evaluation tools. All of these previous studies used the SERVQUAL approach to measure service quality in hotel and other service industries. This study will explore customers, expectation and perception levels towards service quality which is focusing on the front office staff at the hotel. Conceptual Framework The paradigm presents the research problem in a more comprehensible manner. It is conceptualized that the dependent variables which is the level of customer satisfaction practices that can affected by independent variables which is the profiles of the hotels/inns and resorts of the first district of Ilocos Sur. This study therefore, is guided by the research paradigm shown in the figured 1. Independent VariablesDependent Variables Figure 1. Research Paradigm In the figure 1. It is hypothesizes that the level of customer satisfaction practices along tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy dependent on the type of ownership, capital, number of employees, years of existence, number of rooms. Meanwhile, the problem encountered by the hotels/inns and resorts Operational Definition of Terms Customer satisfaction. is the result of customers evaluation to the consumption experience with the services. Service quality. means the difference between the customer’s expectation of service and their perceived service. Tangibility. The physical evidence of the hotels/inns and resorts staff including a personality and appearance of personnel’s, tools and equipment use to provide the service. Reliability. The ability involves performing the promised service dependably and accurately. It includes â€Å"Doing it right the first time,† which is one of the most important services components for customers. Responsiveness. The Hotels/Inns and Resorts are willing to help customers and provide prompt service to customers such as quick service, professionalism in handling and recovering from mistakes. It has been said that â€Å"Today luxury is time†. Assurance. Refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence including competence, courtesy, credibility and security Empathy. Refers to the provision of caring and individualized attention to customers including access, communication and understanding the customers. Business Related Factors. It is a term used to show the business related factors such as: type of ownership, capital, number of employees, number of rooms and year of existence. Type of ownership. His refers on the type of organizational set-up of the business such as single proprietorship, partnership, or corporation. Capital. This refers to the total amount of money invested before and after the operation process. Years of existence. This refers to the total number of years from the time of the establishment open for business up to present years. Number of employees. This refer to the total number of people working for an organizational establishment which include front desk agent, reservation officer, guest relation officer, chef, room attendant and bell boy. Number of rooms. The total number of rooms available in hotels/inns and resorts similar businesses to accommodate visitors to a particular place. Hotels/Inns. A business establishment that provides paid for accommodation food and beverage for the short term period of time. Resorts. A place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company. Assumptions It will be assumed in this study that: 1. The Hotels/Inns and Resorts owner/manager apply the customer satisfaction on the practices functions improving on their business operation. 2. The respondents will answer the questionnaires designed for this study sincerely and truthfully. 3. The questionnaire to be used in conducting the study is valid and reliable Hypotheses Based on the problems of the study, it was hypothesized that: There is a significant relationship between the customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/inns and resorts of the First District of Ilocos Sur and the aforementioned business related factors. Methodology This portion presents a description of the method of research, population and sample, data gathering instrument, data gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data. Research Design. This study was made to use of the descriptive method of research. This method was determined the profile of the hotels/inns and resorts business of the first district in Ilocos Sur together with the level of customer satisfaction with the aforementioned marketing practices. The correalational method, was to find out whether the profile of the hotels/inns and resorts with the aforementioned business related factors have to do something with the level of customer satisfaction with the aforementioned marketing practices and whether the problems, issues and comments regarding the operation of the hotels/inns and resorts is dependent on the level on the level of customer satisfaction with the aforementioned marketing practices. Population and Sample. The respondent of the study were the owners/managers and customers of the 26 hotels/inns and resorts located at the first district in Ilocos Sur is considered s a served on the study. Therefore, this selection of this service business was based on the service offered. Purposive sampling was utilized to gather data from the customers. There were 318 customers who check-in in the hotels/inns and resorts during the gathering period. Table 1 shows the respondents from the hotels/inns and resorts involve with the study. Table 1. Distribution of the Population Hotels/Inns and Resorts |Owners/Managers |  Customers |  Totals |  % | |Hotels/Inns | | | | | |  Cordillera Inn |1 |  15 |16   |4. 45 | |Cordillera Family Inn |1 |  10 |11   |  3. 06 | |Hotel Salcedo |16 |20   |36   |  10. 2 | |  Vigan Plaza Hotel |  1 |  15 |16   |4. 45 | |  Grandpas Inn |  1 |  15 |  16 |4. 45   | |Luzon Inn |1 |4 | 5 |1. 39 | |  Gordion Hotel |  1 |  20 |21   |5. 5    | |  Vigan Heritage Mansion |  1 |  15 |  16 |4. 45   | |  Rf Aniceto Mansion |  1 |  14 |15   |4. 18   | |  Villa Angela Pension House |  1 |  15 |  16 |4. 45   | |  Green R Hotel |  1 |  10 |  11 |3. 06   | |  Jaja Hotel |  1 1 |  14 |  15 |4. 8   | |  Mel Sol’s Tourist Inn |1   |  10 |  11 |  3. 06 | |  Mom’s Courtyard |  1 |  8 |   9 |  2. 51 | |Casa Teofila Lodge |  1 |  10 |  11 |3. 06   | |  El Juliana Hotel |  1 |12 |  13 |3. 2   | |Resorts | | | | | |Heritage Resort of Caoayan |1 |12 |13 |3. 62 | |Aplaya Mindoro Beach Resort |  1 |12 |  13 |  3. 62 | |Paraiso ni Don Juan Beach Resort |1 |12 |13 |3. 2 | |  Ponce Del Mar Beach Resorts |  1 |  10 |11   |3. 06   | |  Cabugao Beach Resort |  1 |  8 |  9 |  2. 51 | |Taj Resort |1 |12 |13 |3. 62 | |Ovemar Hotel and Resorts |1 |10 |11 |3. 6 | |  Teppeng Cove Beach Resort |  1 |  12 |13   |3. 62à ‚   | |Katib Beach Resort |1 |11 |12 |3. 34 | |Dayvee Hotel and Resorts |1 |12 |13 |3. 62 | |Totals |41 |318 |359 | | |Frequency (%) |11. 2 |88. 58 | |100 | Data Gathering Instruments The study will use a questionnaire to gather the necessary data. It consists of the following parts: Part I. This part will elicit information on the profile of the hotels/inns and resorts of the First District of Ilocos Sur. Part II. Provided the Level of Customer Satisfaction in the aforementioned marketing practices of the hotels/inns and resorts on the first district of Ilocos Sur. This items included in the questionnaires were adopted from the used by parasuraman et. Al (1998). However, to determined the customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/inns and resorts, a questionnaires was constructed and validated. In addition, the translation of level ranking was analyzed follow the criteria of customer’s satisfaction designed by Best (1977:174) The following norm for interpretation will be used to describe the following: On the Level of Customer Satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/inns and resorts Statistical RangeItem Descriptive Rating Overall Descriptive Rating 4. 2-5. 00Very much satisfiedVery High 3. 42-4. 21Much satisfiedHigh [H] 2. 62-3. 41SatisfiedFair [F] 1. 81-2. 61Moderately satisfiedLow (L) 1. 00-1. 80Not satisfiedVery Low [VL] Part III. Chi- Square will be test the significant relationship between the level of customer satisfaction with the aforementioned marketing practices and the profiles of the hotels/inns and resorts associated with the aforementioned business related factors. Part IV. It will include are the problems, issues comments regarding the operation of the hotels/inns and resorts. Data Gathering Procedure The following activities will be done for the conduct of the study: Prior to the survey, the questionnaire was piloted with the owners/managers, personnel and customers of the hotels/inns and resorts of the first district of ilocos sur to examined the first draft of the questionnaire and any misunderstanding over term and questions. The results of the piloted test showed that some sentences in the question were unclear and ambiguous. To realize the objectives of the study, the researcher will seek the assistance of the different experts for the validation of the questionnaire. After the validation, the researcher will ask permission from the different owners/ managers of the hotels/inns and resorts of first district of Ilocos Sur to conduct the study and for the endorsement of the study to the management. The management also suggested that the researcher should give an example in each questions in order to make the questions easy to understand. The results of the pilot study provided the correct information and the suitable design of questionnaire Upon approval of the management, the researcher will personally distribute and retrieved questionnaires to/from the respondents. The researcher will also look into documents for verification and acquisition of more data. Statistical Treatment of Data In the analysis and interpretation of the data, the following statistical tools will be utilized: 1. Frequency count, percentages will be used to determine the profile of the hotels/inns and resorts. 2. Mean will be applied to describe the level of customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/inns and resorts on the first district of Ilocos Sur. 3. Chi- Square will be utilized to determined the level of customer satisfaction on the practices of the hotels/inns and resorts associated with the aforementioned business related factors. Dummy Tables Table 2. Profiles of the Hotels/Inns and Resorts in terms of the some selected variables |Variables |f | % | |Type of Ownership | | | |Single proprietorship | | | | Partnership | | | | Corporation | | | |Totals | | | |Capital |f |% | |less than P2,000,000 | | |2,000,001 less than 5,000,000 | | | |5,000,001 less than 8,000,000 | | | |8,000,000 less than 10,000,000 | | | |10,000,001 and above | | | |Totals | | | |Number of Employees |f |% | | less than10 | | | |11 less than 14 | | | |15 less than 18 | | | |19 less than 21 | | | |Above 22 | | | |Totals | | | |Years of Existence |f |% | |1 4 Years | | | |5 8 Year | | | |9 12 Years | | | |13- 16 Years | | | |17 above | | | |Totals | | | |Number of Rooms | |% | |Less than 10 rooms | | |11-15 rooms | | | | 16- 20 rooms | | | |21-24 rooms | | | | 25- 29 rooms | | | | 30 and above | | | |Totals | | | |Services offered | |% | |Sleeping Accomodation | | | |Car rental/Service | | | |Food and Beverages | | | |Special offer for tour guidin g | | | |Recreational Facilities | | | |Cottage | | | |Firing Range | | | |Other forms of service offered | | | |Totals | | | Table 3. Level of Customer Satisfaction in the aforementioned Marketing Practices of the Hotels/Inns and Resorts on the First District of Ilocos Sur |Customer satisfaction |Mean |Dr | |Tangibility | | |The service personnel are suitably dressed and are professional in appearance. | | | |The make-up quality of hotel rooms is sufficiently clean. | | | |Visually appealing materials associated with the service. | | | |The hotels/inns and resorts provides sufficient dining facilities and services. | | | |Convenient hotels/inns and resorts business hours. | | | |The hotels/inns and resorts have a modern equipment. | | |Overall mean score | | | |Reliability | | | | The service personnel can correctly provide service | | | | The service personnel completed services in the time | | | | The service personnel is capable of resolving customer service | | | |The servi ce personnel can quickly provide required of the guest | | | |Overall mean score | | | |Responsiveness | | | |Fast treatment of customer complaint issues in the hotels/inns and resorts | | | |Stay operational speed in providing services | | | | You are not concerned about hotel payment methods | | | Hotel provides stated services | | | |Overall mean score | | | |Assurance | | | |You feel safe regarding the hardware and | | | |software of the hotel | | | |The staff have product knowledge of the hotels/inns and resorts e. g. describing all rooms type and | | | |the restaurants. | | | |Hotel service personnel are professional | | | |The service personnel provides individual services based on your needs. | | |The service personnel actively provide services and polite | | | |The behaviour of employees instill confidence in customers | | | |Customers feel safe in their transactions with the employees | | | |Employees are polite to customers | | | |Employees have knowledge to answer cu stomers’ questions. | | |Overall mean score | | | |Empathy | | | |The hotel/inns and resorts has sufficient leisure facilities | | | |The hotel/inns and resorts provides sufficient leisure activities (such as events in the evenings) | | | |Grocery stores give customers individual attention. | | | |Operating of the business in the hotels/inns and resorts are convenient to customers. | | | |Employees of hotel/inns and resorts give customers personal service. | | | |Employees in the hotels/inns and resorts have their customers’ interest at heart. | | |Employees of hotels/inns and resorts understand the specific needs of their customers. | | | |Overall mean score | | | |General Mean | | | Table 4. Chi Square test showing the significant relationship between the level of customer satisfaction and the profiles of the hotels/inns and resorts in the aforementioned business related factors. Business Related factors |Level of Customer Satisfaction | | |Tangibility |Reliabilit y |Responsiveness |Assurance |Empathy |   | |Type of ownership |  x2 |  x2crit | |The hotels/inns and resorts is difficult to get in on his room accommodation | | | |Complaints about the staff or not satisfied on their service performance | | | |Complaints about the food | | | |There are few guests | | | |Guests are bored | | | Theft | | | |Many things are broken such as: ambiance/facilities | | | |Customers | | | |No booking on arrival | | | |Unhelpful staff | | | |Next to a lift shaft | | | |Noisy room | | | |Overcharged | | | |Poor room service | | | |Cancellation costs | | | |Others | | | A. Bibliography Asubonteng, P. Mccleary, K. J. , Swan, J. E. (1996). 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